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IOS 解析XML文档

关键词:IOS解析XML文档  阅读(863) 赞(13)

[摘要]本文是对IOS 解析XML文档的讲解,对学习IOS苹果软件开发有所帮助,与大家分享。

前段时间想找点事做,就是试着看能不能用豆瓣的API做点什么,于是就碰到了这个问题——XML解析。

  老师还没讲,只能自己去查。

  XML文档解析主要有SAX和DOM两种模式,IOS上两种模式都可以用,这里就不做过多介绍,我选择的SAX模式。

IOS解析XML用的是自带的NSXML框架,框架的核心是NSXMLParser类和它的委托协议NSXMLParserDelegate,其主要的解析工作是在NSXMLParserDelegate实现类中完成的。委托中定义了许多回掉方法,在SAX解析器从上到下遍历XML文档的过程中,遇到开始标签、结束标签、文档开始、文档结束和字符串结束是就会触发这些方法。这些方法有很多,下面我们列出5个常用的方法。

在文档开始时触发

 -(void)parserDidStartDocument:(NSXMLParser *)parser      

  遇到一个新标签是触发,其中namespaceURI是命名空间,qualifiedName是限定名,attributes是字典类型的属性集合。

-(void)parser:(NSXMLParser *)parser didStartElement:(NSString *)elementName namespaceURI:(NSString *)namespaceURI qualifiedName:(NSString *)qName attributes:(NSDictionary *)attributeDict 

  找到字符串时触发

    -(void)parser:(NSXMLParser *)parser foundCharacters:(NSString *)string

  遇到结束标签时触发

    -(void)parser:(NSXMLParser *)parser didEndElement:(NSString *)elementName namespaceURI:(NSString *)namespaceURI qualifiedName:(NSString *)qName 

  在文档结束时触发

-(void)parserDidEndDocument:(NSXMLParser *)parser       

下面通过一个具体的例子来看整个的调用与解析过程

首先这是我们将要解析的XML文件 "info.xml"

    ​    ​    ​<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

    ​    ​    ​<root>  ​    ​

    ​    ​    ​    ​ <person id="1">

    ​    ​    ​    ​    ​ <firstName>Wythe</firstName>
   ​    ​    ​    ​    ​
    ​    ​    ​    ​    ​ <lastName>xu</lastName>
   ​    ​    ​    ​    ​
    ​    ​    ​    ​    ​ <age>22</age>  ​    ​    ​    ​

    ​    ​    ​    ​ </person>
  ​    ​    ​
   ​    ​    ​    ​ <person id="2">
   ​    ​    ​    ​
    ​    ​    ​    ​    ​ <firstName>li</firstName>
    ​    ​    ​    ​    ​
    ​    ​    ​    ​    ​ <lastName>si</lastName>
    ​    ​    ​    ​    ​
    ​    ​    ​    ​    ​ <age>31</age>
  ​    ​    ​    ​
    ​    ​    ​    ​ </person>
    ​    ​    ​    ​
    ​    ​    ​    ​    ​<person id="3">
   ​    ​    ​    ​    ​    
    ​    ​    ​    ​    ​ <firstName>Dipen</firstName>
    ​    ​    ​    ​    ​    
    ​    ​    ​    ​    ​ <lastName>Shah</lastName>
    ​    ​    ​    ​    ​    
    ​    ​    ​    ​    ​ <age>24</age>
    ​    ​    ​    ​    
    ​    ​    ​    ​ </person>
    ​    ​    ​    ​
    ​    ​    ​</root>

接来来是一个头文件 "ViewController.h"

#import <UIKit/UIKit.h>

@interface ViewController : UIViewController<NSXMLParserDelegate>

@property NSXMLParser *parser;
@property NSMutableArray *person;
@property NSString *currenttag;

@end

然后是它的实现文件 "ViewController.m"

#import "ViewController.h"

@interface ViewController ()

@end

@implementation ViewController

@synthesize  parser = _parser , person = _person , currenttag = _currenttag;

- (id)initWithNibName:(NSString *)nibNameOrNil bundle:(NSBundle *)nibBundleOrNil
{
    self = [super initWithNibName:nibNameOrNil bundle:nibBundleOrNil];
    if (self) {
        // Custom initialization
    }
    return self;
}

- (void)viewDidLoad
{
    [super viewDidLoad];
    
    NSString *xmlFilePath = [[NSBundle mainBundle]pathForResource:@"info"ofType:@"xml"];
    
    NSData *data = [[NSData alloc]initWithContentsOfFile:xmlFilePath];
    
    self.parser = [[NSXMLParser alloc]initWithData:data];
    
    self.parser.delegate = self;
    
    [self.parser parse];
    
    NSLog(@"%@",_person);
    
}

- (void)didReceiveMemoryWarning
{
    [super didReceiveMemoryWarning];
    // Dispose of any resources that can be recreated.
}

#pragma mark delegate method

-(void)parserDidStartDocument:(NSXMLParser *)parser
{
    _person = [[NSMutableArray alloc]init];
    NSLog(@"start parse 1");
}

-(void)parser:(NSXMLParser *)parser didStartElement:(NSString *)elementName namespaceURI:(NSString *)namespaceURI qualifiedName:(NSString *)qName attributes:(NSDictionary *)attributeDict
{
    _currenttag = elementName;
    
    if ([_currenttag isEqualToString:@"person"]) {
        NSString *_id = [attributeDict objectForKey:@"id"];
        NSMutableDictionary *dict = [[NSMutableDictionary alloc]init];
        [dict setObject:_id forKey:@"id"];
        [_person addObject:dict];
    }
    
    NSLog(@"start element");
}

-(void)parser:(NSXMLParser *)parser foundCharacters:(NSString *)string
{
    NSMutableDictionary *dict = [_person lastObject];
    
    if ([_currenttag isEqualToString:@"firstName"] && dict) {
        [dict setObject:string forKey:@"firstName"];

    }
    if ([_currenttag isEqualToString:@"lastName"] && dict) {
        [dict setObject:string forKey:@"lastName"];
    }
    if ([_currenttag isEqualToString:@"age"] && dict) {
        [dict setObject:string forKey:@"age"];
    }
    
    NSLog(@"found characters");
}

-(void)parser:(NSXMLParser *)parser didEndElement:(NSString *)elementName namespaceURI:(NSString *)namespaceURI qualifiedName:(NSString *)qName
{
    _currenttag = nil;
    
    NSLog(@"end element");
}

-(void)parserDidEndDocument:(NSXMLParser *)parser
{
    NSLog(@"parse end");
}
@end

通过断电和输出信息,我们可以知道整个解析过程是 开始解析文档、开始标签、找到字符串、结束标签、文档结束。

2014-09-10 16:45:32.920 xmlforblog[3820:60b] start parse 1
2014-09-10 16:45:32.921 xmlforblog[3820:60b] start element
2014-09-10 16:45:32.922 xmlforblog[3820:60b] found characters
2014-09-10 16:45:32.922 xmlforblog[3820:60b] start element
2014-09-10 16:45:32.922 xmlforblog[3820:60b] found characters
2014-09-10 16:45:32.922 xmlforblog[3820:60b] start element
2014-09-10 16:45:32.923 xmlforblog[3820:60b] found characters
2014-09-10 16:45:32.923 xmlforblog[3820:60b] end element
2014-09-10 16:45:32.923 xmlforblog[3820:60b] found characters
2014-09-10 16:45:32.923 xmlforblog[3820:60b] start element
2014-09-10 16:45:32.924 xmlforblog[3820:60b] found characters
2014-09-10 16:45:32.924 xmlforblog[3820:60b] end element
2014-09-10 16:45:32.924 xmlforblog[3820:60b] found characters
2014-09-10 16:45:32.924 xmlforblog[3820:60b] start element
2014-09-10 16:45:32.925 xmlforblog[3820:60b] found characters
2014-09-10 16:45:32.925 xmlforblog[3820:60b] end element
2014-09-10 16:45:32.925 xmlforblog[3820:60b] found characters
2014-09-10 16:45:32.925 xmlforblog[3820:60b] end element
2014-09-10 16:45:32.926 xmlforblog[3820:60b] found characters
2014-09-10 16:45:32.926 xmlforblog[3820:60b] start element
2014-09-10 16:45:32.928 xmlforblog[3820:60b] found characters
2014-09-10 16:45:32.929 xmlforblog[3820:60b] start element
2014-09-10 16:45:32.929 xmlforblog[3820:60b] found characters
2014-09-10 16:45:32.929 xmlforblog[3820:60b] end element
2014-09-10 16:45:32.930 xmlforblog[3820:60b] found characters
2014-09-10 16:45:32.930 xmlforblog[3820:60b] start element
2014-09-10 16:45:32.930 xmlforblog[3820:60b] found characters
2014-09-10 16:45:32.930 xmlforblog[3820:60b] end element
2014-09-10 16:45:32.931 xmlforblog[3820:60b] found characters
2014-09-10 16:45:32.931 xmlforblog[3820:60b] start element
2014-09-10 16:45:32.931 xmlforblog[3820:60b] found characters
2014-09-10 16:45:32.931 xmlforblog[3820:60b] end element
2014-09-10 16:45:32.931 xmlforblog[3820:60b] found characters
2014-09-10 16:45:32.932 xmlforblog[3820:60b] end element
2014-09-10 16:45:32.932 xmlforblog[3820:60b] found characters
2014-09-10 16:45:32.932 xmlforblog[3820:60b] start element
2014-09-10 16:45:32.932 xmlforblog[3820:60b] found characters
2014-09-10 16:45:32.933 xmlforblog[3820:60b] start element
2014-09-10 16:45:32.933 xmlforblog[3820:60b] found characters
2014-09-10 16:45:32.933 xmlforblog[3820:60b] end element
2014-09-10 16:45:32.933 xmlforblog[3820:60b] found characters
2014-09-10 16:45:32.934 xmlforblog[3820:60b] start element
2014-09-10 16:45:32.934 xmlforblog[3820:60b] found characters
2014-09-10 16:45:32.934 xmlforblog[3820:60b] end element
2014-09-10 16:45:32.934 xmlforblog[3820:60b] found characters
2014-09-10 16:45:32.935 xmlforblog[3820:60b] start element
2014-09-10 16:45:32.935 xmlforblog[3820:60b] found characters
2014-09-10 16:45:32.935 xmlforblog[3820:60b] end element
2014-09-10 16:45:32.935 xmlforblog[3820:60b] found characters
2014-09-10 16:45:32.936 xmlforblog[3820:60b] end element
2014-09-10 16:45:32.936 xmlforblog[3820:60b] found characters
2014-09-10 16:45:32.936 xmlforblog[3820:60b] end element
2014-09-10 16:45:32.936 xmlforblog[3820:60b] parse end
2014-09-10 16:45:32.936 xmlforblog[3820:60b] (
        {
        age = 22;
        firstName = Wythe;
        id = 1;
        lastName = xu;
    },
        {
        age = 31;
        firstName = li;
        id = 2;
        lastName = si;
    },
        {
        age = 24;
        firstName = Dipen;
        id = 3;
        lastName = Shah;
    }
)
执行结果

而我们的处理主要是在开始标签、找到字符串 (

-(void)parser:(NSXMLParser *)parser didStartElement:(NSString *)elementName namespaceURI:(NSString *)namespaceURI qualifiedName:(NSString *)qName attributes:(NSDictionary *)attributeDict 
-(void)parser:(NSXMLParser *)parser foundCharacters:(NSString *)string

) 中。

遇到开始标签时,我们现判断标签,名字,如果是person,表明接下来就是person的信息,这样我们就先创建一个可变字典,以便将来存放它的值。

-(void)parser:(NSXMLParser *)parser didStartElement:(NSString *)elementName namespaceURI:(NSString *)namespaceURI qualifiedName:(NSString *)qName attributes:(NSDictionary *)attributeDict
{
    _currenttag = elementName;
    
    if ([_currenttag isEqualToString:@"person"]) {
        NSString *_id = [attributeDict objectForKey:@"id"];
        NSMutableDictionary *dict = [[NSMutableDictionary alloc]init];
        [dict setObject:_id forKey:@"id"];
        [_person addObject:dict];
    }
    
    NSLog(@"start element");
}

在找到字符串时,我们就是通过判断当前标签名,将对应的信息保存到刚刚创建的字典中

-(void)parser:(NSXMLParser *)parser foundCharacters:(NSString *)string
{
    NSMutableDictionary *dict = [_person lastObject];
    
    if ([_currenttag isEqualToString:@"firstName"] && dict) {
        [dict setObject:string forKey:@"firstName"];

    }
    if ([_currenttag isEqualToString:@"lastName"] && dict) {
        [dict setObject:string forKey:@"lastName"];
    }
    if ([_currenttag isEqualToString:@"age"] && dict) {
        [dict setObject:string forKey:@"age"];
    }
    
    NSLog(@"found characters");
}

不断循环这样的过程,最后我们就可以解析出整个XML文档。

另外说一句,这只是解析一般的文档,如果你跟我曾经一样学会这个就去解析豆瓣API的XML文档,会发现行不通。这时因为许多网站因为它的数据较多,为了避免标签的重复,使用了命名空间,带有命名空间的XML文档解析和这稍有不同。



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