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如何在 Microsoft Visual C# .NET 中实现 Microsoft Excel 自动化

关键词:C#.NETMicrosoftExcel自动化  阅读(538) 赞(13)

[摘要]本文是对如何在 Microsoft Visual C# .NET 中实现 Microsoft Excel 自动化的讲解,对学习C#编程技术有所帮助,与大家分享。

通过自动化过程,使用诸如 Visual C# .NET 这样的语言编写的应用程序就可以用编程方式来控制其他应用程序。利用 Excel 的自动化功能,您可以执行诸如新建工作簿、向工作簿添加数据或创建图表等操作。对于 Excel 和其他 Microsoft Office 应用程序,几乎所有可以通过用户界面手动执行的操作也都可以通过使用“自动化”功能以编程方式来执行。

Excel 通过一种对象模型来公开这一程序功能。该对象模型是一些类和方法的集合,这些类和方法充当 Excel 的逻辑组件。例如,有Application对象、Workbook对象和Worksheet对象,其中每一种对象都包含 Excel 中那些组件的功能。要从 Visual C# .NET 访问该对象模型,可以设置对类型库的项目引用。

本文将阐述如何为 Visual C# .NET 设置对 Excel 类型库的适当项目引用,并提供使 Excel 自动运行的代码示例。

为 Microsoft Excel 创建自动化客户端

    1. 启动 Microsoft Visual Studio .NET。
    2. 在文件菜单上,单击新建,然后单击项目。从 Visual C# 项目类型中选择Windows 应用程序。Form1 是默认创建的窗体。
    3. 添加对Microsoft Excel 对象库的引用。为此,请按照下列步骤操作:
      1. 在项目菜单上,单击添加引用。
      2. 在COM选项卡上,找到Microsoft Excel 对象库,然后单击选择。

        注意:Microsoft Office 2003 包含主 Interop 程序集 (PIA)。Microsoft Office XP 不包含 PIA,但您可以下载 PIA。 有关 Office XP PIA 的更多信息,请单击下面的文章编号,以查看 Microsoft 知识库中相应的文章:
        328912Microsoft Office XP 主 interop 程序集 (PIA) 可供下载
      3. 在添加引用对话框中单击确定以接受您的选择。如果系统提示您为选定的库生成包装,请单击是。
    4. 在视图菜单上,选择工具箱以显示工具箱,然后向 Form1 添加一个按钮。
    5. 双击Button1。出现该窗体的代码窗口。
    6. 在代码窗口中,将以下代码
       private void button1_Click(object sender, System.EventArgs e)
       {
       }

      替换为

       private void button1_Click(object sender, System.EventArgs e)
       {
           Excel.Application oXL;
           Excel._Workbook oWB;
           Excel._Worksheet oSheet;
           Excel.Range oRng;
       
           try
           {
               //Start Excel and get Application object.
               oXL = new Excel.Application();
               oXL.Visible = true;
       
               //Get a new workbook.
               oWB = (Excel._Workbook)(oXL.Workbooks.Add( Missing.Value ));
               oSheet = (Excel._Worksheet)oWB.ActiveSheet;
       
               //Add table headers going cell by cell.
               oSheet.Cells[1, 1] = "First Name";
               oSheet.Cells[1, 2] = "Last Name";
               oSheet.Cells[1, 3] = "Full Name";
               oSheet.Cells[1, 4] = "Salary";
       
               //Format A1:D1 as bold, vertical alignment = center.
               oSheet.get_Range("A1", "D1").Font.Bold = true;
               oSheet.get_Range("A1", "D1").VerticalAlignment = 
                   Excel.XlVAlign.xlVAlignCenter;
               
               // Create an array to multiple values at once.
               string[,] saNames = new string[5,2];
               
               saNames[ 0, 0] = "John";
               saNames[ 0, 1] = "Smith";
               saNames[ 1, 0] = "Tom";
               saNames[ 1, 1] = "Brown";
               saNames[ 2, 0] = "Sue";
               saNames[ 2, 1] = "Thomas";
               saNames[ 3, 0] = "Jane";
               saNames[ 3, 1] = "Jones";
               saNames[ 4, 0] = "Adam";
               saNames[ 4, 1] = "Johnson";
       
                   //Fill A2:B6 with an array of values (First and Last Names).
                   oSheet.get_Range("A2", "B6").Value2 = saNames;
       
               //Fill C2:C6 with a relative formula (=A2 & " " & B2).
               oRng = oSheet.get_Range("C2", "C6");
               oRng.Formula = "=A2 & \" \" & B2";
       
               //Fill D2:D6 with a formula(=RAND()*100000) and apply format.
               oRng = oSheet.get_Range("D2", "D6");
               oRng.Formula = "=RAND()*100000";
               oRng.NumberFormat = "$0.00";
       
               //AutoFit columns A:D.
               oRng = oSheet.get_Range("A1", "D1");
               oRng.EntireColumn.AutoFit();
       
               //Manipulate a variable number of columns for Quarterly Sales Data.
               DisplayQuarterlySales(oSheet);
       
               //Make sure Excel is visible and give the user control
               //of Microsoft Excel's lifetime.
               oXL.Visible = true;
               oXL.UserControl = true;
           }
           catch( Exception theException ) 
           {
               String errorMessage;
               errorMessage = "Error: ";
               errorMessage = String.Concat( errorMessage, theException.Message );
               errorMessage = String.Concat( errorMessage, " Line: " );
               errorMessage = String.Concat( errorMessage, theException.Source );
       
               MessageBox.Show( errorMessage, "Error" );
           }
       }
       
       private void DisplayQuarterlySales(Excel._Worksheet oWS)
       {
           Excel._Workbook oWB;
           Excel.Series oSeries;
           Excel.Range oResizeRange;
           Excel._Chart oChart;
           String sMsg;
           int iNumQtrs;
       
           //Determine how many quarters to display data for.
           for( iNumQtrs = 4; iNumQtrs >= 2; iNumQtrs--)
           {
               sMsg = "Enter sales data for ";
               sMsg = String.Concat( sMsg, iNumQtrs );
               sMsg = String.Concat( sMsg, " quarter(s)?");
       
               DialogResult iRet = MessageBox.Show( sMsg, "Quarterly Sales?", 
                   MessageBoxButtons.YesNo );
               if (iRet == DialogResult.Yes)
                   break;
           }
       
           sMsg = "Displaying data for ";
           sMsg = String.Concat( sMsg, iNumQtrs );
           sMsg = String.Concat( sMsg, " quarter(s)." );
       
           MessageBox.Show( sMsg, "Quarterly Sales" );
       
           //Starting at E1, fill headers for the number of columns selected.
           oResizeRange = oWS.get_Range("E1", "E1").get_Resize( Missing.Value, iNumQtrs);
           oResizeRange.Formula = "=\"Q\" & COLUMN()-4 & CHAR(10) & \"Sales\"";
       
           //Change the Orientation and WrapText properties for the headers.
           oResizeRange.Orientation = 38;
           oResizeRange.WrapText = true;
       
           //Fill the interior color of the headers.
           oResizeRange.Interior.ColorIndex = 36;
       
           //Fill the columns with a formula and apply a number format.
           oResizeRange = oWS.get_Range("E2", "E6").get_Resize( Missing.Value, iNumQtrs);
           oResizeRange.Formula = "=RAND()*100";
           oResizeRange.NumberFormat = "$0.00";
       
           //Apply borders to the Sales data and headers.
           oResizeRange = oWS.get_Range("E1", "E6").get_Resize( Missing.Value, iNumQtrs);
           oResizeRange.Borders.Weight = Excel.XlBorderWeight.xlThin;
       
           //Add a Totals formula for the sales data and apply a border.
           oResizeRange = oWS.get_Range("E8", "E8").get_Resize( Missing.Value, iNumQtrs);
           oResizeRange.Formula = "=SUM(E2:E6)";
           oResizeRange.Borders.get_Item( Excel.XlBordersIndex.xlEdgeBottom ).LineStyle 
               = Excel.XlLineStyle.xlDouble;
           oResizeRange.Borders.get_Item( Excel.XlBordersIndex.xlEdgeBottom ).Weight 
               = Excel.XlBorderWeight.xlThick;
       
           //Add a Chart for the selected data.
           oWB = (Excel._Workbook)oWS.Parent;
           oChart = (Excel._Chart)oWB.Charts.Add( Missing.Value, Missing.Value, 
               Missing.Value, Missing.Value );
       
           //Use the ChartWizard to create a new chart from the selected data.
           oResizeRange = oWS.get_Range("E2:E6", Missing.Value ).get_Resize( 
               Missing.Value, iNumQtrs);
           oChart.ChartWizard( oResizeRange, Excel.XlChartType.xl3DColumn, Missing.Value,
               Excel.XlRowCol.xlColumns, Missing.Value, Missing.Value, Missing.Value, 
               Missing.Value, Missing.Value, Missing.Value, Missing.Value );
           oSeries = (Excel.Series)oChart.SeriesCollection(1);
           oSeries.XValues = oWS.get_Range("A2", "A6");
           for( int iRet = 1; iRet <= iNumQtrs; iRet++)
           {
               oSeries = (Excel.Series)oChart.SeriesCollection(iRet);
               String seriesName;
               seriesName = "=\"Q";
               seriesName = String.Concat( seriesName, iRet );
               seriesName = String.Concat( seriesName, "\"" );
               oSeries.Name = seriesName;
           }                                                          
           
           oChart.Location( Excel.XlChartLocation.xlLocationAsObject, oWS.Name );
       
           //Move the chart so as not to cover your data.
           oResizeRange = (Excel.Range)oWS.Rows.get_Item(10, Missing.Value );
           oWS.Shapes.Item("Chart 1").Top = (float)(double)oResizeRange.Top;
           oResizeRange = (Excel.Range)oWS.Columns.get_Item(2, Missing.Value );
           oWS.Shapes.Item("Chart 1").Left = (float)(double)oResizeRange.Left;
       }
                           

      滚动到代码窗口的顶部。将下面的代码行添加到using指令列表的末尾:

       using Excel = Microsoft.Office.Interop.Excel;
       using System.Reflection; 

      对自动化客户端进行测试

      1. 按 F5 生成并运行该程序。
      2. 在窗体上,单击Button1。该程序将启动 Excel 并将数据填充到一个新的工作表中。
      3. 在提示您输入季度销售数据时,单击是。一个链接到季度数据的图表就会被添加到工作表中。


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