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Android源码分析之AsyncTask

关键词:源码分析AndroidAsyncTask  阅读(824) 赞(19)

[摘要]本文是对Android源码分析之AsyncTask的讲解,对学习Android编程技术有所帮助,与大家分享。

  AsyncTask相信从事Android开发的同学都不陌生,基本都应该用到了,和以前一样我们还是先来看看此类的summary。AsyncTask

可以确保更合理、容易的使用UI线程。这个类是设计用来执行一个后台操作然后将结果发布到UI线程,但却使你不必直接操作Thread

和Handler(其实内部已经为你封装好了而已)。AsyncTask是围绕Thread和Handler而设计的一个Helper类,它的目标并不是提供

一个generic的Thread框架。AsyncTask的理想使用情况是针对比较短暂的操作(比如至多几秒钟的那种),所以说如果你需要Thread

长时间的运行,那么强烈建议你使用java.util.concurrent包里提供的各种API,比如Executor、ThreadPoolExecutor和FutureTask。

  接下来我们看看AsyncTask的各个字段,字段比较多:

  private static final int CPU_COUNT = Runtime.getRuntime().availableProcessors();
    private static final int CORE_POOL_SIZE = CPU_COUNT + 1;
    private static final int MAXIMUM_POOL_SIZE = CPU_COUNT * 2 + 1;
    private static final int KEEP_ALIVE = 1;

    private static final ThreadFactory sThreadFactory = new ThreadFactory() {
        private final AtomicInteger mCount = new AtomicInteger(1);

        @Override
        public Thread newThread(Runnable r) {
            return new Thread(r, "AsyncTask #" + mCount.getAndIncrement());
        }
    };

    private static final BlockingQueue<Runnable> sPoolWorkQueue =
            new LinkedBlockingQueue<Runnable>(128);

    /**
     * An {@link Executor} that can be used to execute tasks in parallel.
     */
    public static final Executor THREAD_POOL_EXECUTOR
            = new ThreadPoolExecutor(CORE_POOL_SIZE, MAXIMUM_POOL_SIZE, KEEP_ALIVE,
                    TimeUnit.SECONDS, sPoolWorkQueue, sThreadFactory);

这些字段基本都能望文生义,主要是为了创建最下面的ThreadPoolExecutor(有时间的话我会分析下它的源码),需要留意的

可能就算是这里CORE_POOL_SIZE的取值,为cpu的数目加1,这样做可以刚好保持cpu忙碌,最大限度的提高cpu利用率。

ThreadPoolExecutor是一种特殊的Executor,其runnable的执行是在线程池里并行完成的。

  下面我们看看另一种特殊的Executor,串行Executor,代码如下:

  /**
     * An {@link Executor} that executes tasks one at a time in serial
     * order.  This serialization is global to a particular process.
     */
    public static final Executor SERIAL_EXECUTOR = new SerialExecutor();

  private static class SerialExecutor implements Executor {
        final ArrayDeque<Runnable> mTasks = new ArrayDeque<Runnable>();
        Runnable mActive;

        @Override
        public synchronized void execute(final Runnable r) {
            mTasks.offer(new Runnable() {
                @Override
                public void run() {
                    try {
                        r.run();
                    } finally {
                        scheduleNext();
                    }
                }
            });
            if (mActive == null) {
                scheduleNext();
            }
        }

        protected synchronized void scheduleNext() {
            if ((mActive = mTasks.poll()) != null) {
                THREAD_POOL_EXECUTOR.execute(mActive);
            }
        }
    }

这里的重点是一个Deque实现ArrayDeque,可以看出offer方法往deque尾部添加一个新的Runnable,这个Runnable比较特殊,它做的事情是执行

当前的AsyncTask,最后安排下一个AsyncTask执行(全局的AsyncTask都会在这里排队),这样就实现了AsyncTask的串行执行(执行顺序是FIFO)。

这里要注意的是即使是串行化的执行还是delegate给了同一个(和并行执行每个AsyncTask相比)THREAD_POOL_EXECUTOR。

  下面是剩下的一堆字段:

    private static final int MESSAGE_POST_RESULT = 0x1;
    private static final int MESSAGE_POST_PROGRESS = 0x2;

    private static final InternalHandler sHandler = new InternalHandler();

    private static volatile Executor sDefaultExecutor = SERIAL_EXECUTOR;
    private final WorkerRunnable<Params, Result> mWorker;
    private final FutureTask<Result> mFuture;

    private volatile Status mStatus = Status.PENDING;

    private final AtomicBoolean mCancelled = new AtomicBoolean();
    private final AtomicBoolean mTaskInvoked = new AtomicBoolean();

MESSAGE_xxx之类的是post message用到的what字段;

sHandler是和UI线程相关(所以你应该在UI线程中创建AsyncTask,因为默认其他线程一般没有与之关联的Looper)的处理后台线程

post message的Handler,具体代码稍后分析;

sDefaultExecutor表示默认的Executor,即串行执行的;

mWorker是一个抽象类实现了Callable<Result>接口,还有个Params类型的数组字段mParams;

mFuture表示一个可取消的异步操作,这里指的就是mWorker;

mStatus表示task执行过程中的状态,剩下的是2个原子boolean变量,用来做标记使用;

  表示task的当前状态的enum,如下:

    /**
     * Indicates the current status of the task. Each status will be set only once
     * during the lifetime of a task.
     */
    public enum Status {
        /**
         * Indicates that the task has not been executed yet.
         */
        PENDING,
        /**
         * Indicates that the task is running.
         */
        RUNNING,
        /**
         * Indicates that {@link AsyncTask#onPostExecute} has finished.
         */
        FINISHED,
    }

  接下来来看一个关键部分,ctor代码如下:

    /**
     * Creates a new asynchronous task. This constructor must be invoked on the UI thread.
     */
    public AsyncTask() {
        mWorker = new WorkerRunnable<Params, Result>() {
            public Result call() throws Exception {
                mTaskInvoked.set(true);

                Process.setThreadPriority(Process.THREAD_PRIORITY_BACKGROUND);
                //noinspection unchecked
                return postResult(doInBackground(mParams));
            }
        };

        mFuture = new FutureTask<Result>(mWorker) {
            @Override
            protected void done() {
                try {
                    postResultIfNotInvoked(get());
                } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                    android.util.Log.w(LOG_TAG, e);
                } catch (ExecutionException e) {
                    throw new RuntimeException("An error occured while executing doInBackground()",
                            e.getCause());
                } catch (CancellationException e) {
                    postResultIfNotInvoked(null);
                }
            }
        };
    }

构造器说白了就是分别初始化mWorker和mFuture;mWorker表示可以返回结果的runnable,在其call方法中主要做3件事:

1. 设置task为invoked;

2. 设置线程优先级为BACKGOURND级别;

3. 调用doInBackground(mParams),并将结果发布到UI线程;

mFuture重写了其protected的done方法,在其内调用get方法来获取计算结果,get方法可能抛出3种异常,这里分别处理之;

如果执行正常即没任何异常的话,则再次将结果post到UI线程如果还没post过的话;

  接下来就来看看将background线程的结果/进度post到UI线程的相关方法:

 private void postResultIfNotInvoked(Result result) {
        final boolean wasTaskInvoked = mTaskInvoked.get();
        if (!wasTaskInvoked) {
            postResult(result);
        }
    }

    private Result postResult(Result result) {
        @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
        Message message = sHandler.obtainMessage(MESSAGE_POST_RESULT,
                new AsyncTaskResult<Result>(this, result));
        message.sendToTarget();
        return result;
    }

    /**
     * This method can be invoked from {@link #doInBackground} to
     * publish updates on the UI thread while the background computation is
     * still running. Each call to this method will trigger the execution of
     * {@link #onProgressUpdate} on the UI thread.
     *
     * {@link #onProgressUpdate} will note be called if the task has been
     * canceled.
     *
     * @param values The progress values to update the UI with.
     *
     * @see #onProgressUpdate
     * @see #doInBackground
     */
    protected final void publishProgress(Progress... values) {
        if (!isCancelled()) {
            sHandler.obtainMessage(MESSAGE_POST_PROGRESS,
                    new AsyncTaskResult<Progress>(this, values)).sendToTarget();
        }
    }

前者只在task没被invoked的时候post,postResult的具体实现是obtain一个Message(将result包装在Message中),发送给sHandler处理;

publishProgress可以将后台线程的进度周期性的汇报给UI线程,可以用来更新UI显示,其实现也都是发送Message到sHandler,但是是在任务

没被取消的前提下。

  接下来看几个客户端可能需要override的方法,如下:

    /**
     * Override this method to perform a computation on a background thread. The
     * specified parameters are the parameters passed to {@link #execute}
     * by the caller of this task.
     *
     * This method can call {@link #publishProgress} to publish updates
     * on the UI thread.
     *
     * @param params The parameters of the task.
     *
     * @return A result, defined by the subclass of this task.
     *
     * @see #onPreExecute()
     * @see #onPostExecute
     * @see #publishProgress
     */
    protected abstract Result doInBackground(Params... params);

    /**
     * Runs on the UI thread before {@link #doInBackground}.
     *
     * @see #onPostExecute
     * @see #doInBackground
     */
    protected void onPreExecute() {
    }

    /**
     * <p>Runs on the UI thread after {@link #doInBackground}. The
     * specified result is the value returned by {@link #doInBackground}.</p>
     *
     * <p>This method won't be invoked if the task was cancelled.</p>
     *
     * @param result The result of the operation computed by {@link #doInBackground}.
     *
     * @see #onPreExecute
     * @see #doInBackground
     * @see #onCancelled(Object)
     */
    @SuppressWarnings({"UnusedDeclaration"})
    protected void onPostExecute(Result result) {
    }

    /**
     * Runs on the UI thread after {@link #publishProgress} is invoked.
     * The specified values are the values passed to {@link #publishProgress}.
     *
     * @param values The values indicating progress.
     *
     * @see #publishProgress
     * @see #doInBackground
     */
    @SuppressWarnings({"UnusedDeclaration"})
    protected void onProgressUpdate(Progress... values) {
    }

    /**
     * <p>Runs on the UI thread after {@link #cancel(boolean)} is invoked and
     * {@link #doInBackground(Object[])} has finished.</p>
     *
     * <p>The default implementation simply invokes {@link #onCancelled()} and
     * ignores the result. If you write your own implementation, do not call
     * <code>super.onCancelled(result)</code>.</p>
     *
     * @param result The result, if any, computed in
     *               {@link #doInBackground(Object[])}, can be null
     *
     * @see #cancel(boolean)
     * @see #isCancelled()
     */
    @SuppressWarnings({"UnusedParameters"})
    protected void onCancelled(Result result) {
        onCancelled();
    }

    /**
     * <p>Applications should preferably override {@link #onCancelled(Object)}.
     * This method is invoked by the default implementation of
     * {@link #onCancelled(Object)}.</p>
     *
     * <p>Runs on the UI thread after {@link #cancel(boolean)} is invoked and
     * {@link #doInBackground(Object[])} has finished.</p>
     *
     * @see #onCancelled(Object)
     * @see #cancel(boolean)
     * @see #isCancelled()
     */
    protected void onCancelled() {
    }

    /**
     * Returns <tt>true</tt> if this task was cancelled before it completed
     * normally. If you are calling {@link #cancel(boolean)} on the task,
     * the value returned by this method should be checked periodically from
     * {@link #doInBackground(Object[])} to end the task as soon as possible.
     *
     * @return <tt>true</tt> if task was cancelled before it completed
     *
     * @see #cancel(boolean)
     */
    public final boolean isCancelled() {
        return mCancelled.get();
    }

这些方法你可以根据自己的需要重写其中某些,一般doInBackground都会被重写,因为这是你使用AsyncTask的目的,你的后台操作就发生

在这里面;其他几个onXXX之类的方法都发生在UI线程中,算是种callback机制,用来通知UI线程什么事情发生了。其他要注意的就是仔细阅读

下方法的doc,每个都有清晰的说明。

  下来接着看下public的cancel和get方法,

    /**
     * <p>Attempts to cancel execution of this task.  This attempt will
     * fail if the task has already completed, already been cancelled,
     * or could not be cancelled for some other reason. If successful,
     * and this task has not started when <tt>cancel</tt> is called,
     * this task should never run. If the task has already started,
     * then the <tt>mayInterruptIfRunning</tt> parameter determines
     * whether the thread executing this task should be interrupted in
     * an attempt to stop the task.</p>
     *
     * <p>Calling this method will result in {@link #onCancelled(Object)} being
     * invoked on the UI thread after {@link #doInBackground(Object[])}
     * returns. Calling this method guarantees that {@link #onPostExecute(Object)}
     * is never invoked. After invoking this method, you should check the
     * value returned by {@link #isCancelled()} periodically from
     * {@link #doInBackground(Object[])} to finish the task as early as
     * possible.</p>
     *
     * @param mayInterruptIfRunning <tt>true</tt> if the thread executing this
     *        task should be interrupted; otherwise, in-progress tasks are allowed
     *        to complete.
     *
     * @return <tt>false</tt> if the task could not be cancelled,
     *         typically because it has already completed normally;
     *         <tt>true</tt> otherwise
     *
     * @see #isCancelled()
     * @see #onCancelled(Object)
     */
    public final boolean cancel(boolean mayInterruptIfRunning) {
        mCancelled.set(true);
        return mFuture.cancel(mayInterruptIfRunning);
    }

    /**
     * Waits if necessary for the computation to complete, and then
     * retrieves its result.
     *
     * @return The computed result.
     *
     * @throws CancellationException If the computation was cancelled.
     * @throws ExecutionException If the computation threw an exception.
     * @throws InterruptedException If the current thread was interrupted
     *         while waiting.
     */
    public final Result get() throws InterruptedException, ExecutionException {
        return mFuture.get();
    }

    /**
     * Waits if necessary for at most the given time for the computation
     * to complete, and then retrieves its result.
     *
     * @param timeout Time to wait before cancelling the operation.
     * @param unit The time unit for the timeout.
     *
     * @return The computed result.
     *
     * @throws CancellationException If the computation was cancelled.
     * @throws ExecutionException If the computation threw an exception.
     * @throws InterruptedException If the current thread was interrupted
     *         while waiting.
     * @throws TimeoutException If the wait timed out.
     */
    public final Result get(long timeout, TimeUnit unit) throws InterruptedException,
            ExecutionException, TimeoutException {
        return mFuture.get(timeout, unit);
    }

这些方法没什么多说的,都是delegate给了mFuture,主要就是多看看方法的doc。

  接下来看看关键的executeXXX方法,代码如下:

    /**
     * Executes the task with the specified parameters. The task returns
     * itself (this) so that the caller can keep a reference to it.
     *
     * <p>Note: this function schedules the task on a queue for a single background
     * thread or pool of threads depending on the platform version.  When first
     * introduced, AsyncTasks were executed serially on a single background thread.
     * Starting with {@link android.os.Build.VERSION_CODES#DONUT}, this was changed
     * to a pool of threads allowing multiple tasks to operate in parallel. Starting
     * {@link android.os.Build.VERSION_CODES#HONEYCOMB}, tasks are back to being
     * executed on a single thread to avoid common application errors caused
     * by parallel execution.  If you truly want parallel execution, you can use
     * the {@link #executeOnExecutor} version of this method
     * with {@link #THREAD_POOL_EXECUTOR}; however, see commentary there for warnings
     * on its use.
     *
     * <p>This method must be invoked on the UI thread.
     *
     * @param params The parameters of the task.
     *
     * @return This instance of AsyncTask.
     *
     * @throws IllegalStateException If {@link #getStatus()} returns either
     *         {@link AsyncTask.Status#RUNNING} or {@link AsyncTask.Status#FINISHED}.
     *
     * @see #executeOnExecutor(java.util.concurrent.Executor, Object[])
     * @see #execute(Runnable)
     */
    public final AsyncTask<Params, Progress, Result> execute(Params... params) {
        return executeOnExecutor(sDefaultExecutor, params);
    }

    /**
     * Executes the task with the specified parameters. The task returns
     * itself (this) so that the caller can keep a reference to it.
     *
     * <p>This method is typically used with {@link #THREAD_POOL_EXECUTOR} to
     * allow multiple tasks to run in parallel on a pool of threads managed by
     * AsyncTask, however you can also use your own {@link Executor} for custom
     * behavior.
     *
     * <p><em>Warning:</em> Allowing multiple tasks to run in parallel from
     * a thread pool is generally <em>not</em> what one wants, because the order
     * of their operation is not defined.  For example, if these tasks are used
     * to modify any state in common (such as writing a file due to a button click),
     * there are no guarantees on the order of the modifications.
     * Without careful work it is possible in rare cases for the newer version
     * of the data to be over-written by an older one, leading to obscure data
     * loss and stability issues.  Such changes are best
     * executed in serial; to guarantee such work is serialized regardless of
     * platform version you can use this function with {@link #SERIAL_EXECUTOR}.
     *
     * <p>This method must be invoked on the UI thread.
     *
     * @param exec The executor to use.  {@link #THREAD_POOL_EXECUTOR} is available as a
     *              convenient process-wide thread pool for tasks that are loosely coupled.
     * @param params The parameters of the task.
     *
     * @return This instance of AsyncTask.
     *
     * @throws IllegalStateException If {@link #getStatus()} returns either
     *         {@link AsyncTask.Status#RUNNING} or {@link AsyncTask.Status#FINISHED}.
     *
     * @see #execute(Object[])
     */
    public final AsyncTask<Params, Progress, Result> executeOnExecutor(Executor exec,
            Params... params) {
        if (mStatus != Status.PENDING) {
            switch (mStatus) {
                case RUNNING:
                    throw new IllegalStateException("Cannot execute task:"
                            + " the task is already running.");
                case FINISHED:
                    throw new IllegalStateException("Cannot execute task:"
                            + " the task has already been executed "
                            + "(a task can be executed only once)");
            }
        }

        mStatus = Status.RUNNING;

        onPreExecute();

        mWorker.mParams = params;
        exec.execute(mFuture);

        return this;
    }

    /**
     * Convenience version of {@link #execute(Object...)} for use with
     * a simple Runnable object. See {@link #execute(Object[])} for more
     * information on the order of execution.
     *
     * @see #execute(Object[])
     * @see #executeOnExecutor(java.util.concurrent.Executor, Object[])
     */
    public static void execute(Runnable runnable) {
        sDefaultExecutor.execute(runnable);
    }

从上面的代码可以看出如果你不指定Executor,则默认的串行化Executor会被使用,当然如果你愿意也可以提供自己的Executor,

比如AsyncTask.THREAD_POOL_EXECUTOR。executeOnExecutor方法在执行前会做一些状态检测,没执行前应该处于PENDING

状态,否则就被抛出IllegalStateException,这也就是说同一个AsyncTask只能使用一遍;接下来设置状态为RUNNING,调用callback

方法onPreExecute,设置mWorker的mParams字段为用户提供的值,接着在executor中执行mFuture,最后返回this引用。

  最后剩下的我们一块看看,代码如下:

    private void finish(Result result) {
        if (isCancelled()) {
            onCancelled(result);
        } else {
            onPostExecute(result);
        }
        mStatus = Status.FINISHED;
    }

    private static class InternalHandler extends Handler {
        @SuppressWarnings({"unchecked", "RawUseOfParameterizedType"})
        @Override
        public void handleMessage(Message msg) {
            AsyncTaskResult result = (AsyncTaskResult) msg.obj;
            switch (msg.what) {
                case MESSAGE_POST_RESULT:
                    // There is only one result
                    result.mTask.finish(result.mData[0]);
                    break;
                case MESSAGE_POST_PROGRESS:
                    result.mTask.onProgressUpdate(result.mData);
                    break;
            }
        }
    }

    private static abstract class WorkerRunnable<Params, Result> implements Callable<Result> {
        Params[] mParams;
    }

    @SuppressWarnings({"RawUseOfParameterizedType"})
    private static class AsyncTaskResult<Data> {
        final AsyncTask mTask;
        final Data[] mData;

        AsyncTaskResult(AsyncTask task, Data... data) {
            mTask = task;
            mData = data;
        }
    }
}

可以看出finish方法是UI线程在收到MESSAGE_POST_RESULT消息的时候调用,如果取消了则调用onCancelled(result),否则调用

onPostExecute(result);最后都设置了task的状态为FINISHED。同样的,onProgressUpdate是在收到MESSAGE_POST_PROGRESS

被调用的。最后的2个类都是持有数据的类,WorkerRunnable<Params, Result>是一个Callable<Result>并且持有后台task运行需要用到

的参数列表,后台线程post Message的时候会将结果包装成一个AsyncTaskResult发送出去。

  至此AsyncTask的关键代码都已经分析完毕,我们可以看出AsyncTask实际上是对java.util.concurrent包里Executor,Callable,FutureTask

以及Handler的一个综合应用,属于简化开发人员流程的一个工具类。



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